英文中“such as, for example, e.g., i.e., etc., et al. ”的意思和用法

  • 2015-11-05
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在英文论文的编辑加工中,常会遇到such as, for example, e. g. , i. e. , etc. 和et al. 的错误及混淆使用。这里,举例分析这几个词的意义,并阐述其正确用法。

 

1)       such as常列举同类人或事物中的几个例子。

其典型的表示式为a plural + such as + single instance( s) of the group to which the plural refers。

正确使用的是: The Arts Faculty deals only with humanities subjects such as history and literature.

混淆使用的是: The Science Faculty deals only with the measurable such as physics and seismology.

论文中常出现such as与and so on或etc. 连用, 这是不正确的。

① 如 It is noted that the features such as clean cut ratio denoted by Rc , die roll height denoted by Hdr and die roll width denoted by Wdr , and so on (有的出现etc.) , are better than the ones with the other models.

应为 It is noted that the features, such as clean cut ratio denoted by Rc , die roll height denoted by Hdr and die roll width denoted by Wdr , are better than the ones with the other models.

当使用such as时,读者已理解后面接着的会是一些不完整的列举,因此不需加上and so on或 etc.等。

② 因为such as是对前面的复数名词部分起列举作用,若全部列举出,要改用namely,意思为“即”。文章中出现的He knows four languages, such as Chinese, English, Japanese and German,应将such as改成namely(或i. e. )及后面加逗号, 即He knows four languages, namely, Chinese, English, Japanese and German.

③ 用such as来形容复数名词( the plural)可以放在such与as中间,一般插在被列举事物与前面的名词之间。

 

2)       for example。用来举例说明,由它引出介绍普遍概念的例子,使用范围要比such as自由。可以出现在句首、句末或有时可作为独立语,插在句中,不影响句子其他部分的语法关系。

例如, Cryptography operations, for example, decryption or signing, in a given period only involve the corresponding temporary secret key without further access to the helper.

同样for example ( e. g. )表示泛泛地举几个例子,并没有囊括所有的实例,其中就已经包含“等等”,如果再加etc. 或and so on,就画蛇添足了。

如论文中出现的这句话是不当的:Writing instructors focus on a number of complex skills that require extensive practice (e. g. , organization, clear expression, logical thinking, etc. 正确的为e. g. , organization, clear expression, and logical thinking.

 

3) e. g.。是拉丁文exempli gratia的缩写,意思是“举个例子,比如”,等同于“for example”,目的是用例子来说明前面的观点,用法与for example相同。

 

4) i. e.源于拉丁语,是id est的简略形式。其意思就是“那就是说,换句话说”,等同于“that is, in other words”和“namely”,目的是用来进一步解释前面所说的观点。

正确的用法是Use a comma to enclose ( i. e. , both before and after) the year in a month day year sequence. 而文章中出现的这句The evaluation noted that the employee had frequently exhibited irresponsible behavior ( i. e. , coming to work late, failing to complete projects) ,应该用“e. g. ”而不是用“i. e. ”,因为插入句是对“irresponsible behavior”的列举补充。

 

5) etc.。是et cetera的缩写,意思是“等等”,相当于“and so on”。可用来列举事物,若要列举人,则需用et al. 或用and others。

 

6) et al.。是拉丁文简写。其一为et alibi (以及其他地方) ,相当于and elsewhere;其二为et alii (以及其他人) ,相当于and others。

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